Indian bankers and merchants can only get at these rupees, so as to obtain a net addition to the currency, by buying sovereigns or Council Bills in London. But while the Government saves for itself the commission which it would otherwise have to pay to a bank, it is not, in any real sense, a competitor with the banks for business. The Government were hard pressed to supply sufficient rupees in 1906, and hard pressed to supply sufficient sterling in 1908. But a great number of persons are now bred from their earliest manhood in the very midst of that routine; they learn it as they would learn a language, and come to be no more able to unlearn it than they could unlearn a language. But when these savings come to be lodged in the hands of bankers, a much wider result is produced. And these losses were made in a manner so reckless and so foolish, that one would think a child who had lent money in the City of London would have lent it better. Something similar has existed in Java under Dutch influences for many years.